Utilization of Neem Leaves (Azadirachta indica)

Utilization of Neem Leaves (Azadirachta indica)
Local Genius is local wisdom in a particular area that has qualities and advantages with the content of universal values such as historical, religious, ethical, aesthetic, scientific, and technological values. Culture has many local geniuses that are still relevant to be used to overcome existing problems . For example (1) to deal with limited water debit in agriculture, the develop a System that regulates water systems with an environmental perspective. (2) to preserve the forest, the concept of duwe forest or sacred forest was developed and (3) to achieve prosperity, happiness, and peace in harmony, the Balinese people use the philosophy of Tri Hita Karana (three elements that cause happiness). The local genius mentioned above.
For this reason, the writer tries to explore the local concept of genius found and related to the CHAPTER of Growth and Development in the discipline of Plant Physiology which is about "Utilization of Mimba Leaves (Assigning the Chemical Structure of Phthalate Isolate in of Azadirachta Indica), ". The formulation of the problem that the writer can take from the background of the above problem is:
1. What is the general description of the neem plant (Azadirachta indica)? 2. What and what is meant by ethylene gas? 3. How is the process of extracting (ripening) fruits by using neem leaves (Azadirachta indica)? The purpose of writing that the writer can take from the above problem formulation is:
1. To find out the general description of the Mimba Plant ((Azadirachta indica)? 2. To find out about ethylene gas. 3. To find out about the process of charging (cooking) fruits by using neem leaves (Azadirachta indica). The writing methods used by the author in the making of this paper are: 1. Interview Method that is by conducting interviews with the resource person (A.A. Alit Ratnadi) about the process of charging (cooking) fruit that is usually carried out by the Banjar Batannyuh Kelod community in particular, and the Karangasem Community in general. 2. Literature Method that is by finding and studying the sources relevant to the material of this paper. Through the library and browsing on the internet.
Mimba plants (Azadirachta indica) usually live in areas with very wide temperature and rainfall ranges. As it can survive in areas with long dry seasons and annual rainfall of 450-2250 mm. It is often found in life at an altitude of 0-700 meters above sea level, but can also grow at altitudes above 1500 if the temperature is not too high. Medium-sized trees, more than 15 m tall, rarely reaching 25 m, short straight stems, mostly covered with branches, canopy, oval and large. The old bark is dark gray, thick and grooved.
Compound leaves, 7-17 pairs per stem, oval-shaped and toothed, 6-8 cm long, 1-3 cm wide. Tassel-shaped flowers with a length of 10-30 cm, white to beige. Mimba is sometimes confused with mind. The neem leaves are arranged spirally, gathered at the end of the chain, are even pinnate compound leaves. The number of leaflets is even at the end of the stalk, with 8-16 strands. serrated leaf edge, toothed, raised, thin leaf blade like skin and easy to seep. Wake up child leaves extending to half lancet, base of spiky leaf child, tip of spiky leaf child and half tapered, barren or slightly hairy. The length of the young leaves is about 3-10.5 cm (Backer and Van der Brink, 1965). Azadirachta indica leaves contain compounds including β-sitosterol, hyperoside, nimbolide, quercetin, quercitrin, routine, azadirachtin, and nimbine. Some of them are revealed to have anticancer activity (Duke, 1992). Azadirachta indica Juss leaves contain nimbin, nimbine, 6-desacetylbimbine, nimbolide and quercetin (Neem Foundation, 1997). Ethylene is a hormone or plant growth regulator in gaseous plants (Lakitan, 1996).
Ethylene is a hydrocarbon compound composed of 2 atoms of C (carbon) and 4 O (oxygen) atoms joined by double bonds (H2C = CH2). The chemical structure of ethylene is very simple, consisting of two carbon atoms and four hydrogen atoms as seen in the chemical structure in scheme 1: This double bond is important for the stability of ethylene when needed during physiological responses. At room temperature, this compound is a gas. In plants, this compound is one of the hormones that play a role in influencing physiological responses. Because it is a gas and is a simple molecule, the mechanism of transport of this hormone is unlike other hormones that move from cell to cell, or through a transport system of transport beams.
Ethylene transport occurs by diffusion, as does oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Ethylene also has special receptors that cause physiological responses in plant organs, such as in inducing germination responses (Leopold & Kredmann, 1975). Ethylene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon compound which at room temperature is in the form of gas. Ethylene can be produced by living plant tissue, at certain times this compound can cause important changes in the process of growth and maturation of agricultural products (Winarno, 1992). Ethylene is a gas that in plant life can be classified as an active hormone in the maturation process. Called a hormone because it can meet the requirements as a hormone, which is produced by plants, is mobile in plant tissue and is an organic compound.

Financial Performance Rating

Financial Performance Rating
For investors, information about the company's financial performance can be used to see whether they will maintain their investment in the company or look for other alternatives. If the company's performance is good, the business value will be high. With a high business value, investors are eyeing the company to invest their capital so that there will be an increase in share prices. Or it can be said that stock prices are a function of company value. As for the company, the company's financial performance information can be utilized for the following matters (Jenny Chan on “Forensic Accounting Application and the Extenuation of Fraud”):
To measure the achievements achieved by an organization in a certain period that reflects the level of success in carrying out its activities. Besides being used to see the overall organizational performance, then performance measurement can also be used to assess the contribution of a part in the achievement of overall company goals. Can be used as a basis for determining the company's strategy for the future. Give instructions in making decisions and organizational activities in general and divisions or parts of the organization in particular. As a basis for determining investment policies in order to improve company efficiency and productivity.
Definition, Type and Measurement of Company Value Company value is investors' perception of the level of success of a company that is often associated with stock prices. High stock prices make the value of the company also high, and increase market confidence not only in the company's current performance but also in the company's future prospects. Maximizing company value is very important for a company, because maximizing company value means maximizing the company's main goals.
Increasing the value of the company is an achievement in accordance with the wishes of its owners, because with increasing company value, the welfare of the owners will also increase. Here are some definitions and definitions of company value from several book sources: According to Sartono (2010: 487), the value of a company is the sale value of a company as a business that is operating. The existence of excess selling value above the value of liquidation is the value of the management organization that runs the company.
According to Harmono (2009: 233), the value of the company is the company's performance which is reflected by the stock price formed by the demand and supply of the capital market that reflects the public's assessment of the company's performance. According to Noerirawan (2012), the Company's value is a condition that has been achieved by a company as an illustration of public trust in the company after going through a process of activities for several years, ie since the company was founded until now. According to Brigham and Erdhadt (2005: 518), the value of a company is the present value of free cash flow in the future at a discount rate according to the weighted average cost of capital.
Free cash flow is cash flow available to investors (creditors and owners) after taking into account all expenses for company operations and expenses for investment and net current assets. According to Gitman (2006: 352), the company's value is the actual value per share that will be received if the company's assets are sold according to the share price. Types of Company Values There are five types of company values based on the calculation method used, namely (Yulius and Tarigan, 2007: 3): Nominal Value. Nominal value is the value that is formally listed in the company's articles of association, explicitly stated in the company's balance sheet, and also written clearly in a collective share certificate.
Market value. Market value is often called the exchange rate is the price that occurs from the bargaining process in the stock market. This value can only be determined if the company's shares are sold on the stock market. Intrinsic Value. Intrinsic value is the most abstract concept, because it refers to an estimate of the real value of a company. Company value in the concept of intrinsic value is not just the price of a set of assets, but the value of the company as a business entity that has the ability to generate profits in the future. Book value. Book value is the value of a company calculated on the basis of an accounting concept. It is simply calculated by dividing the difference between total assets and total debt by the number of shares outstanding. Liquidation Value. Liquidation value is the selling value of all company assets after deducting all obligations that must be met. Liquidation values can be calculated in the same way as calculating book values, i.e. based on the performance balance prepared when a company will be liquidated.

Problems faced in managing degraded land

Problems faced in managing degraded land
The increase in degraded land in the world is increasing every year. An increase in the area of critical land is a simultaneous unity between biophysical, socio-economic and cultural conditions related to land use as the main production factor, and the adoption of policies that do not consider sustainability. Therefore, in determining control measures and models of approach, it is necessary to consider the representation of socio-cultural aspects and the desires of the local community.
To obtain the technical foundation for the approach and control of critical land, it is necessary to have a technological synthesis that is able to bridge the interests of the community with the rehabilitation efforts of the land. For this reason, in developing agroforestry patterns, it is necessary to consider the right approach, which is in accordance with the capabilities of human resources, the environment, social culture and the selection of types of commodities to be developed. With various considerations of land and community conditions that most of the population earn a living in agriculture and animal husbandry, the types of agroforestry that can be developed in this area include: agrosilviculture, Sylvopasture (Sinichi on Pasture Species Composition in A Silvopastoral System Journal)
The problem faced in managing critical land and water management in this region is to balance the protection and preservation of limited land and water resources with increasing human needs. Geographical diversity and uniqueness with different types of agro-climate and typical land types require specific handling, especially for land rehabilitation. For this reason, input and adaptation of technology are needed to take into account social, economic and land use patterns, and caution is needed in adopting successful land rehabilitation models in other areas.
In order to support the success of land rehabilitation, a management model is needed that can improve the standard of living of the community so that the community is actively involved in problem analysis and decision making.
Use or application of Silvopastoral Agrovorestry system technology. in addition to meeting the needs of human life, it is also to rehabilitate critical land so that forest sustainability is maintained. Efforts to rehabilitate degraded land also require legal instruments, management and use systems and institutional regulations that support the realization of community participation.
Therefore, Sagat is needed in a multi-stakeholder approach both in terms of technical, suitability of land and plant types. Silvopastoral agroforestry systems provide sustainable benefits and in addition are able to increase community participation in supporting critical land rehabilitation activities and strong local institutions are formed.
The benefits of this activity include the following: a. Value added products on the science and technology side. In terms of science and technology, this activity contributes in the form of information regarding the use of the silvopastoral system. In addition to restoring critical lands as well as to protect and protect water catchments. b. National social impact. Farmers will always use the silvopastoral system because it can protect or avoid the danger of flooding and erosion and the land can be used by farmers to meet their daily livestock feed needs. c. The economic benefits of the product. This activity is expected to reduce or eliminate damage to existing land as well as a source of animal feed so that costs for animal feed are reduced and profit margins are increased.

Employees are Company Capital

Employees are Company Capital
Employees are also always referred to as human capital, which means employees are the most important capital to produce added value to the company. As the most important capital, the function and role of employees always aims to maximize company productivity and efficiency through effective work methods. Because, if employees are not productive and inefficient, then employees may no longer be the most important capital, but become a burden for the company. "A proud attitude never makes a person learn to grow, but only makes someone like to show off their meager abilities." ~ Djajendra on “Operational Rate of Foreign Direct Investment Journal”.
From the recruitment process to the performance evaluation process, employees must always be reminded that they are the company's capital, so that employees understand the meaning of their existence in the company. If the problems of leadership, communication, ethics, and work ethic are not carried out properly by the company, then the employee has the potential to become ineffective workers, and may also potentially be a burden on the company.
A great company will always care for the quality of its employees, whether in terms of emotions, intellectuality, or in terms of skills. The most important thing is that a great company always strives to make every employee as capital, and to prevent its employees from becoming a burden to the company. Every company always plans to get the most out of its human resources. This can only happen if management works effectively and productively.
To make management work effectively and productively, it requires the best quality of work and competence of the employees. Without having skilled employees in their respective jobs, it is not possible to produce effective and productive management. Therefore, leaders must have awareness and actions in improving the quality of their human resources in all dimensions or aspects of work. Ignoring the quality, expertise, competence, and work ethic of employees is the same as letting the company become ineffective and productive.
Knowledge, insight, ethos, physical strength, strength of positive thoughts, and strength of conscience become the basis for building the strength of expertise in each work. Each individual employee must be trained to have a superior level of knowledge and skills. They must also be built and developed continuously to have endurance and adaptability at every point of change and point of challenge. Company awareness to continuously improve the best skills and ethos of employees, making employees as the most productive assets to produce the best performance.
Every employee must have an awareness that if he wants to have job security and wants to be respected in the workplace, he must be disciplined to develop skills and work ethics that are extraordinarily productive. Getting used to being diligent and disciplined, and focusing on growing the quality of self with the various abilities needed by the company, will increase employee reliability. As a professional employee, be a learner who is always humble to test the quality of the expertise he has today; understand and identify deficiencies that are owned; keep learning to grow competencies so that you can appear more reliably and more expertly at work.
Invest your time, energy, money, and enthusiasm to make you more reliable at work. Leadership and employees must be united to build expertise in the workplace. Together expand skills, insight, knowledge, expertise, and integrity. Together promoting positive energy as a foundation for developing a trusted company image, increasing credibility, being professional in every situation, and making employees and leadership have the confidence to overcome a crisis or an unfavorable situation.

Definition, Measurement and Evaluation of Financial Performance

Definition, Measurement and Evaluation of Financial Performance
Illustration of Financial Performance. Financial performance is a picture of the company's financial condition in a certain period both regarding aspects of fund raising and fund distribution, which is usually measured by indicators of capital adequacy, liquidity, and profitability (Jumingan, 2006: 239). The company's financial performance is an achievement achieved by the company in a certain period that reflects the level of health of the company (Sutrisno, on Ownership Structure and Financial Performance Indicators Journal).
Financial performance is an analysis conducted to see the extent to which a company has carried out using the rules of financial implementation properly and correctly. Company performance is a picture of the financial condition of a company that is analyzed by financial analysis tools, so that it can be known about the good and bad financial condition of a company that reflects work performance in a certain period. This is very important so that resources are used optimally in the face of environmental changes (Fahmi, 2011: 2). Measurement of Financial Performance The company's financial performance is closely related to performance measurement and assessment.
Performance measurement is the qualification and efficiency and effectiveness of the company in operating the business during the accounting period. The performance evaluation according to Srimindarti (2006: 34) is the determination of operational effectiveness, organization, and employees based on the targets, standards and criteria that have been previously set periodically. Performance measurement is used by companies to make improvements over their operational activities in order to compete with other companies. Financial performance analysis is a critical review process of reviewing data, calculating, measuring, interpreting, and providing solutions to the company's finances in a certain period.
According to Munawir (2012: 31) states that the objectives of measuring the company's financial performance are: Know the level of liquidity. Liquidity shows the ability of a company to meet financial obligations that must be resolved immediately when billed. Know the level of solvency. Solvency shows the company's ability to meet its financial obligations if the company is liquidated, both short-term and long-term financial. Know the level of profitability. Profitability or often referred to as profitability shows the company's ability to generate profits for a certain period. Know the level of stability.
Stability shows the company's ability to conduct its business in a stable manner, measured by considering the company's ability to pay its debts and pay interest expenses on its debts on time. Financial Performance Analysis Financial performance can be assessed with several analytical tools. Based on the technique, financial analysis can be divided into (Jumingan, 2006: 242): Comparative Analysis of Financial Statements, an analytical technique by comparing financial statements of two or more periods by showing changes, both in number (absolute) and in percentage (relative). Trend analysis (position tendency), is a technique of analysis to determine whether the financial situation is showing an increase or decrease.
Percentage Analysis per Component (common size), is an analysis technique to find out the percentage of investment in each asset against the total or total assets or debt. Analysis of Sources and Use of Working Capital, an analytical technique to determine the magnitude of sources and uses of working capital through two time periods that are compared. Analysis of Cash Sources and Uses, is an analysis technique to determine the condition of cash accompanied by changes in cash at a certain time period.
Financial Ratio Analysis, is a financial analysis technique to determine the relationship between certain items in the balance sheet and income statement both individually and simultaneously. Analysis of Changes in Gross Profit, is an analysis technique to determine the position of earnings and the causes of earnings changes. Break Even Analysis, an analysis technique to determine the level of sales that must be achieved so that the company does not experience losses.

Financial Financing in Agriculture

Financial Financing in Agriculture
Agricultural finance where the financing of agribusiness companies in it is related to financial matters in the agriculture sector. This last sector, in turn, includes the economic sector which together with the industrial sector and the service sector in a country, constitutes the country's national economic sector. Agricultural finance is related to the demand, supply, regulation and application of capital in the agricultural sector, while the financing of agribusiness companies deals with all the needs and arrangements and financial control to finance the status of companies / activities in the agricultural sector. Companies in the agricultural sector are called farming, as long as all the results of these farms are aimed at the market, even though the business rank is still traditional and simple, still subsistent, and is already modern and commercial.
Agricultural finance is a macro study of efforts to obtain capital, use the capital and finally control it in agriculture in an aggregative sense (Rural farmers savings capacity and impact on farm investment), whether it is in the genetical sense including forestry and plantations, or in the fields of animal husbandry, fisheries and in other fields whose results are sourced from nature and surroundings. Agribusiness company financing is part of the study of agricultural finance. The agricultural sector, especially in developing countries has a very important position, even the most important in the overall economic sector.
Agribusiness company financing is a micro study of how to provide capital, then use it, and finally control it in an agribusiness company (Kadarsan, 1992). Agricultural capital in the macro sense is a factor of capital production that is channeled, managed and controlled in economic activities in the agricultural sector in a broad sense and is one of the national economic sectors. Farming capital in the micro sense is a factor of capital production that is provided, processed and controlled in an agribusiness enterprise or a simple farm. Investment capital is capital that is used to finance the establishment of a company to expand the company's volume or to replace equipment such as machinery, buildings and other capital goods. In the agricultural world usually the largest amount of investment capital consists of capital to buy agricultural land. Operational capital or working capital or also called current capital is used to finance all expenses that cause the company to actively operate. For example, to purchase production materials, equipment, daily or piece rate, and other costs, which in the end after the production process runs will produce products that will be ready to be marketed. Expenditures for consumptive purposes during the operational period are also financed by operational capital (Riyanto, 1983).
Agricultural finance is an effort to get capital, use that capital and finally control it which is carried out in all fields of agriculture in the aggregate sense. Agricultural finance is related to the demand, supply, regulation and application of capital in the agricultural sector, while the financing of agribusiness companies is related to all the needs and arrangements and financial control to finance a company / activity in the agricultural sector (farming) (Kadarsan, 1992). From the above information it can be concluded that agricultural capital in the macro sense is a factor of capital production that is channeled, managed and controlled in economic activities in the agricultural sector. Farming capital in the micro sense is a factor of capital production that is provided, processed and controlled in an agribusiness company farm or a simple farm. Capital can be in the form of investment capital and operational capital. The use of capital is intended so that agribusiness / farming companies can run and produce to improve the welfare of the community, especially the farming community
Agricultural Extension Funding According to Extension Approach Approach Model in extension of Assumptions Objectives Cost responsibility
1. The general rural extension approach (Teknolohgi approach in general) useful technology has not been utilized farmers Increased Production. Increasing Government farmer production
2. The Commodity Specialized Approach (development of special commodities) Increased production / productivity due to lack of input research, marketing, etc. Increased production / production of certain commodities, Example: coffee, rubber Association of commodities
3. The Training & Visit approach The extension skills of the instructor are reduced. Supervision reduced. Visit the instructor reduced. Special Subject Matter (-) is understood by extension agents Encouraging farmers to increase special commodities developed by the Government / Central Government / International Funds
4. The Agricultuural participatory approach (participatory approach) Participation in the production of factors can be improved by more effective participatory extension technology. Increasing production. Increased consumption. Improving the quality of life of the community Farmers associations (locally)
5. The Project Approach Acceleration of development can be achieved by a project approach Demonstrating what can be achieved in a few years' time Central government. International donors / funds.

Take advantage of Kitchen Waste as Plant Fertilizers

Take advantage of Kitchen Waste as Plant Fertilizers
Articles - Gardening is a very fun hobby. Especially when you see plants growing fertile, flowering and fruitful. Feeling tired and tired will disappear after a day busy with work routines. The mind becomes fresh when it sees plants that are green and diverse. Besides making the yard more beautiful, gardening is also a pride. Nowadays gardening is not only carried out by people in villages, in cities there are also many people who like gardening. Even people living in cities are more creative in terms of gardening techniques.
With limited land, they can plant a variety of plants. Plants that thrive can be a free refreshing alternative to momentarily forget the hustle and bustle of the world. The harvest from the results of the plants in our own garden that we plant ourselves becomes an extraordinary pride. Use Household Waste as Organic Fertilizer, the benefits of kitchen waste to fertilize plants. How to make plants flourish? The fertility of the plant is inseparable from the role of nutrients or nutrients. Nutrient is a basic need for plants to grow and develop. To meet the nutritional needs of plants need to be given additional nutrients called fertilizer. Fertilizers can be obtained easily, because many are available in agricultural stores. Fertilizer can be applied by spraying, leaking or sprinkling. To get fertilizer, of course we have to buy it at various prices. The better the quality of fertilizer, the more expensive the price. And the more we plant, the more expenses to buy fertilizer. But if you want to save money, you can use kitchen waste as fertilizer to fertilize plants. Some types of kitchen waste we can use as free fertilizer. Broadly speaking, there are 8 types of kitchen waste that can be used as plant fertilizer, including;
1. KITCHEN ASH Utilization of Kitchen Ash as a Fertilizer Plant. If you cook using firewood, there must be ash produced. Instead of being thrown away, kitchen ash can be used to repel pests that disturb plants such as snails. Kitchen ash is also useful for fertilizing plants. Sprinkle kitchen ash on the nursery or around the base of the stem. If the plant is free from pest problems, of course the plant will flourish. And indirectly kitchen ash plays a role in helping keep plants fertile. Well, wood ash on soil organic matter content, but plants continue to flourish, don't waste the kitchen waste. Take advantage to fertilize plants. Besides saving expenses, the plants produced are organic. Organic plants are healthier and safer for consumption because they do not contain residues of hazardous chemicals. The environment also becomes cleaner and healthier because pollution is reduced.
2. VEGETABLES WASTE benefits of vegetable waste Vegetable Waste as Organic Fertilizer The remaining vegetables in the kitchen should not be discarded. Use it as an ingredient in compost to fertilize plants. Compost produced from vegetable waste contains several nutrients needed by plants. Compost can be used as a basic fertilizer mixed in planting media or supplementary fertilizer by sprinkling around the plant stems. Vegetable waste can also be used as liquid organic fertilizer (POC).
2. WASTE FRUITS the benefits of fruit waste Fertilize Plants With Fruit Waste Fruit waste can be used as MOL, commonly called Fruit MOL. MOL fruit functions as a stimulant of flowers and fruit.
3. COCONUT FIBER benefits of coconut fiber Coconut Fiber As A Hydroponic Growing Media And Plant Fertilizer Do not dispose of coconut fiber, because coconut fiber contains elements of potassium (K), phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na) and several other minerals. Coconut fiber soaking water can be used as fertilizer to meet the nutritional needs of plants. Coconut coir can also be used as a growing medium for hydroponic systems.
4. EGG CUP benefits of eggshells Eggshell For Fertilizing Plants Gather the egg shells in the kitchen, then crush or crush them into flour. Sprinkle around the stems of plants. Eggshell flour contains nutrients calcium (K) and magnesium (mg) which are useful for raising soil pH and fertilizing plants. Besides eggshell flour is also useful for repelling plant pests such as snails. According to Stadelman and Owen (1989), the amount of minerals in an eggshell weighs 2.25 grams consisting of 2.21 grams of calcium, 0.02 grams of magnesium, 0.02 grams of phosphorus and a little iron and sulfur.
5. RICE RICE benefits of stale rice Stale MOL Rice to Nourish Plants If there is leftover rice in the kitchen overnight, use it to fertilize the plants. You do this by making it an MOl first. Stale rice MOL is useful as a composting bioactiveator and as a liquid organic fertilizer (POC) to fertilize plants.
6. LERI WATER (Rice Wash) Lery water or rice washing water is useful for making plants more fertile. Leri water contains several nutrients such as phosphorus (P), iron (Fe) and other minerals. Pour the water on the plants so that the plants become fertile. 7. COCONUT WATER Coconut water is not directly useful for fertilizing plants. However, coconut water can be used as an additional material for composting. The sugar content in coconut water serves as a food source for decomposing bacteria used in composting.